Browse Analysis of Managed and Structured Products

22.1 Introduction

An introduction to other types of managed products beyond mutual funds and exchange-traded funds, detailing their structure, regulations, and taxation.


In the previous five chapters, we explored mutual funds and exchange-traded funds, which are the most prevalent types of managed products, along with alternative funds such as hedge funds and liquid alternatives. This chapter delves into other types of managed products designed to meet specialized investor needs.

Common Characteristics of Managed Products

All managed products share certain attributes akin to mutual funds:

  • Capital Pooling: They pool capital to purchase securities based on a specified investment mandate.
  • Management: Managed by either active or passive managers who are compensated through fees to fulfill the investment mandate.
  • Features: Offer economies of scale and provide a low-cost avenue for diversification.

Unique Characteristics of Specific Managed Products

Given that various managed products are tailored to meet specific needs, each type also displays unique characteristics. In this chapter, we will examine the properties of several managed products, including segregated funds and income trusts, and discuss how these products are structured, regulated, and taxed.

Segregated Funds

Segregated funds are insurance products that combine the features of mutual funds with an insurance policy’s guarantee. These funds offer protection against market downturns, guaranteeing a portion (typically 75% to 100%) of the invested capital after a specific period or upon the investor’s death, subject to certain terms and conditions.

Income Trusts

Income trusts are investment funds that hold income-generating assets. Unlike conventional bonds or stocks, income trusts distribute most of their cash flows directly to either unit holders or shareholders, resulting in a high-yield investment.

Learning Outcomes

By the end of this chapter, you will understand:

  • The characteristics and structures of various managed products,
  • The regulatory landscape governing these products,
  • Tax considerations tied to these products.

Glossary and Definitions

Managed Products

Investment vehicles that pool together capital to invest in a diversified portfolio according to a specific strategy or mandate.

Segregated Funds

Insurance-backed funds that offer guarantees on the invested principal upon maturity or death, usually at 75% to 100% of the invested amount.

Income Trusts

Investment funds that own income-generating assets, distributing the majority of generated income directly to investors.

Active and Passive Managers

Active managers strategize to outperform benchmarks, while passive managers strive to mirror the performance of a specific index.

Economies of Scale

Cost advantages that enterprises obtain due to their scale of operation, with cost per unit of output generally decreasing as scale increases.


Investment strategy aimed at mitigating exposure to risk by allocating investments across various financial instruments, industries, and other categories.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

Q: What is the core difference between mutual funds and segregated funds?

A: The main difference between mutual funds and segregated funds is that segregated funds are insurance products offering guarantees on the principal amount, either upon maturity or the investor’s death.

Q: Why are income trusts considered high-yield investments?

A: Income trusts distribute the majority of their generated cash flows directly to investors, resulting in higher payouts compared to traditional equities.

Q: How do active managers differ from passive managers?

A: Active managers employ investment strategies to outperform market benchmarks, while passive managers aim to replicate the performance of specific indexes.

Key Takeaways

  • Managed products pool capital to invest as per certain mandates.
  • While mutual funds, ETFs, and alternative funds are common, other specialized managed products like segregated funds and income trusts offer unique benefits.
  • Understanding their structures, regulatory environments, and taxation is vital for making informed investment choices.

Diagrams and Charts

Example of Managed Product Structure

    graph TD;
	  A[Managed Products] --> B[Mutual Funds]
	  A --> C[ETFs]
	  A --> D[Schemes]
	  D --> E[Segregated Funds]
	  D --> F[Income Trusts]

📚✨ Quiz Time! ✨📚

🧐 Assess and Solidify Your Understanding

Welcome to the Knowledge Checkpoint! You’ll find 10 carefully curated quizzes designed to reinforce the key concepts covered. These questions will help you gauge your grasp of the material, identify areas that need further review, and ensure you’re on the right track towards mastering the content for the Canadian Securities certification exams. Take your time, think critically, and use these quizzes as a tool to enhance your learning journey. 📘✨

Good luck! 🍀💪

## What characteristics do all managed products share with mutual funds? - [ ] They involve only passive management - [x] They pool capital to purchase securities according to a specific investment mandate - [ ] They are exempt from regulatory oversight - [ ] They carry no fees for management > **Explanation:** All managed products, including mutual funds, pool capital to invest according to a specific mandate, and they are managed by someone who is paid to carry out this mandate. ## Which feature is common to all types of managed products? - [ ] They are exclusively designed for high-net-worth individuals - [ ] They exclude capital gains - [x] They benefit from economies of scale and low cost of diversification - [ ] They can only be actively managed > **Explanation:** Managed products benefit from economies of scale and offer low-cost diversification due to the pooling of capital and shared investment costs. ## What aspect differentiates various types of managed products? - [x] Each type is designed to meet particular investor needs and thus has unique characteristics - [ ] They all have the same legal structure - [ ] They are all taxed in the same way - [ ] They all offer the same level of risk and return > **Explanation:** Different managed products are uniquely structured to meet specific investor needs, leading to their distinctive characteristics. ## Which of the following managed products is discussed in the chapter for its specific investment structure, regulation, and taxation? - [ ] Money market funds - [x] Segregated funds and income trusts - [ ] Government bonds - [ ] Real estate > **Explanation:** The chapter specifically mentions segregated funds and income trusts for discussion regarding their unique structure, regulation, and taxation. ## Why is a fee paid to managers of managed products? - [x] To carry out the specific investment mandate - [ ] To cover legal expenses - [ ] To ensure market neutrality - [ ] To pay for insurance premiums > **Explanation:** Managers of managed products are paid a fee to actively or passively carry out the investment mandate designated by the product. ## Which product type was not explicitly mentioned but follows the same principles as mutual funds? - [ ] Government savings bonds - [x] Hedge funds and liquid alts - [ ] Individual retirement accounts - [ ] Commercial real estate funds > **Explanation:** Hedge funds and liquid alts, although not discussed in this chapter, were mentioned as alternative funds with similar principles to mutual funds in previous chapters. ## How are managed products generally regulated? - [x] By the same regulatory authorities that oversee mutual funds - [ ] By an entirely separate regulatory body - [ ] They are largely unregulated - [ ] Through individual contractual agreements > **Explanation:** Managed products share regulatory oversight similar to mutual funds, ensuring compliance and investor protection. ## What is the main advantage of managed products pooling capital? - [ ] It increases the cost per investor - [x] It allows for diversification and economies of scale - [ ] It reduces investment options - [ ] It limits market participation > **Explanation:** Pooling capital in managed products allows for greater diversification and benefits from economies of scale, reducing the cost per investor. ## Which managed product feature can vary depending on the particular needs they are designed to meet? - [x] Their unique characteristics and structure - [ ] Their exclusion from taxes - [ ] Their guaranteed returns - [ ] Their payment of dividends > **Explanation:** Managed products are designed to address specific investor needs, thus each has distinct characteristics and structures. ## What common element do all discussed managed products have in their setup? - [ ] They are all high-risk investments - [ ] They all invest exclusively in equities - [x] They are managed by either an active or passive manager - [ ] They require a minimum investment amount of $1 million > **Explanation:** All discussed managed products are managed by either an active or passive manager who is paid to implement the specific investment mandate.

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Saturday, July 13, 2024