Browse Analysis of Managed and Structured Products

18. Mutual Funds: Types And Features

Introduction to Chapter 18 of the Canadian Securities Course, covering mutual funds' types, features, and performance assessment methods.

This chapter will discuss the features and risk characteristics of the various types of mutual funds. You will learn about the different fund management styles and strategies, and the theories behind them. You will also learn how to make appropriate recommendations, including price calculation, the various types of withdrawal plans, and the tax consequences of redemption. Finally, you will learn how mutual fund performance is measured and how to assess the performance of one fund against that of another.



  1. Compare and contrast the features of different types of mutual funds.

  2. Differentiate between the mutual fund management styles.

  3. Calculate the redemption/selling price of a mutual fund.

  4. Explain the tax consequences of redemptions.

  5. Compare the features and benefits of the types of withdrawal plans.

  6. Explain the process for measuring and comparing mutual fund performance.


Key terms are defined in the Glossary and appear in bold text in the chapter.

  • adjusted cost base: A way of calculating the adjusted value of an asset used for capital gains tax purposes.
  • index fund: A mutual fund designed to replicate the performance of a specific index.
  • asset allocation funds: Mutual funds that diversify holdings across various asset classes.
  • life expectancy-adjusted withdrawal plan: A plan that bases withdrawals on the life expectancy of the investor.
  • balanced funds: Mutual funds that invest in both equities and fixed-income securities.
  • bond funds: Mutual funds that focus on investing in bonds.
  • closet indexing: A situation where a mutual fund claims to be actively managed but closely mimics its benchmark.
  • daily valuation method: A method used to determine the Net Asset Value (NAV) of a mutual fund on a daily basis.
  • dividend funds: Funds that focus on investments that pay high dividends.
  • equity funds: Mutual funds that invest primarily in stocks.
  • fixed-dollar withdrawal plan: A withdrawal plan that allows investors to withdraw a fixed dollar amount periodically.
  • fixed-period withdrawal plan: A plan that allows for withdrawals over a predetermined period.
  • glide path: An investment strategy that changes the asset allocation mix over time.
  • index fund: A mutual fund designed to replicate the performance of a specific index.
  • life expectancy-adjusted withdrawal plan: A plan that bases withdrawals on the life expectancy of the investor.
  • Modified Dietz method: A method of calculating portfolio returns, adjusted for the timing and amount of external money flows.
  • peer group: Other mutual funds against which a fund’s performance can be compared.
  • ratio withdrawal plan: A plan that allows you to withdraw a certain percentage of the fund’s portfolio each year.
  • right of redemption: Investors’ right to sell their shares back to the mutual fund.
  • systematic withdrawal plans: Plans that allow for regular withdrawals in a structured manner.
  • T3 form: A form used to report the income from a trust, such as a mutual fund.
  • T5 form: A form used to report investment income from dividends and interest.
  • target-date funds: Funds that automatically shift the asset allocation closer to a specific date, usually retirement.
  • time-weighted rate of return: A measure of a portfolio’s compound rate of growth adjusted for external cash flows.


What are index funds?

Index funds are mutual funds designed to replicate the performance of a specific market index, such as the S&P 500. They offer broad market exposure, low operating expenses, and low portfolio turnover.

How do I calculate the Net Asset Value (NAV) of a mutual fund?

The NAV is the value per share of a mutual fund, calculated by dividing the total value of the fund’s assets by the number of shares outstanding:

$$ NAV = \frac{Total\,Value\,of\,Assets}{Number\,of\,Shares\,Outstanding} $$

What is a balanced fund?

Balanced funds diversify investments between equities and fixed-income securities to provide both growth and income while mitigating risk.

What are the tax consequences of mutual fund redemptions?

The tax consequences depend on the type of fund and how long the fund shares were held. Generally, short-term capital gains (less than one year) are taxed at a higher rate than long-term capital gains.


  • Understanding the different types of mutual funds and their features is crucial for making informed investment decisions.
  • Knowing fund management styles aids in choosing the appropriate fund for investment strategies.
  • Calculating the redemption price is necessary for knowing when to exit an investment.
  • Awareness of tax implications can optimize the return on mutual fund investments.
  • Various withdrawal plans offer flexible options for periodic income.
  • Measuring and comparing mutual fund performance helps in assessing the effectiveness of the investment.

CSC® Exams Practice Questions

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Welcome to the Knowledge Checkpoint! You'll find 10 carefully curated CSC exam practice questions designed to reinforce the key concepts covered. These questions will help you gauge your grasp of the material, identify areas that need further review, and ensure you're on the right track towards mastering the content for the Canadian Securities certification exams. Take your time, think critically, and use these quizzes as a tool to enhance your learning journey. 📘✨

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## What is the primary focus of Chapter 18 in the CSC? - [ ] Examining the bond market - [x] Discussing the features and risk characteristics of various mutual funds - [ ] Analyzing stock market trends - [ ] Learning about government securities > **Explanation:** Chapter 18 focuses on understanding the characteristics, management styles, pricing, withdrawal plans, tax consequences, and performance measurement of mutual funds. ## Which of the following is NOT a learning objective in Chapter 18? - [ ] Compare features of different types of mutual funds - [ ] Explain tax consequences of redemptions - [ ] Describe bond market fluctuations - [x] Measure and compare mutual fund performance > **Explanation:** Measuring and comparing mutual fund performance is the final objective, while bond market fluctuations are not discussed within this chapter. ## What does the term 'index fund' refer to in the context of mutual funds? - [ ] A fund that focuses exclusively on equities - [ ] A fund with very high management fees - [x] A fund designed to replicate the performance of a specific index - [ ] A fund that invests in a mix of bonds and stocks > **Explanation:** An index fund aims to replicate the performance of a specific market index by holding the same components in similar proportions. ## Which mutual fund management style focuses on maintaining a portfolio that mirrors a particular index? - [ ] Active management - [ ] Sector rotation - [x] Passive management - [ ] Thematic investing > **Explanation:** Passive management refers to managing funds that track and aim to replicate market indices, such as index funds. ## How is the 'time-weighted rate of return' used in evaluating mutual funds? - [ ] To measure the fund's total assets at a specific point - [ ] To determine the fund's expense ratio - [x] To assess the performance independent of the timing and size of cash flows - [ ] To calculate the tax obligations of the investor > **Explanation:** The time-weighted rate of return measures performance by eliminating the effects of cash flows, providing a clearer picture of the fund manager's effectiveness. ## Which term describes a fund management method that mirrors an index but is not officially an index fund? - [x] Closet indexing - [ ] Target-date fund - [ ] Bond fund - [ ] Dividend fund > **Explanation:** Closet indexing is a strategy where a fund mirrors an index's performance without explicitly stating so. ## What is the 'right of redemption' related to mutual funds? - [ ] The right of the fund manager to increase fees - [ ] The manager’s right to change investment strategies - [ ] The right to defer taxes on mutual fund gains - [x] The investor’s right to sell fund units back to the fund at any time > **Explanation:** The right of redemption allows investors to redeem or sell their mutual fund shares back to the fund whenever they choose. ## What does the 'Adjusted Cost Base' (ACB) refer to? - [ ] The original purchase price before any adjustments - [ ] The market value of the mutual fund units - [x] The purchase price of investments adjusted for various factors like returns of capital and reinvested dividends - [ ] The current sale price of the mutual fund units > **Explanation:** The ACB is the adjusted purchase price of an investment, reflecting factors like reinvested dividends and return of capital, used for tax calculation purposes. ## What is a 'Systematic Withdrawal Plan' in mutual funds? - [ ] A plan where investors add money systematically - [x] A plan that allows regular fixed withdrawals from the fund - [ ] A mandatory government withdrawal program - [ ] An emergency fund withdrawal method > **Explanation:** Systematic Withdrawal Plans enable investors to withdraw a fixed amount of money from their mutual funds at regular intervals. ## For mutual fund performance comparison, which method calculates returns accounting for the size and timing of cash flows? - [ ] Peer group analysis - [ ] Net asset value (NAV) assessment - [x] Modified Dietz method - [ ] Gross return evaluation > **Explanation:** The Modified Dietz method calculates fund performance by considering the size and timing of cash flows, providing a more accurate measurement.

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In this section

  • 18.1 Introduction
    Learn about factors to consider when recommending mutual fund investments, including portfolio holdings, risk and reward, management styles, withdrawal methods, tax implications, and evaluating performance against benchmarks in Canadian regulations.
  • 18.2 Types Of Mutual Funds
    Learn about the various types of mutual funds available in Canada, including their features, risks, and suitability for different types of investors.
    • 18.2.1 Money Market Funds
      Understand Money Market Funds, their investment strategies, benefits, risks, and taxation aspects for Canadian investors. Learn how these funds provide liquidity, safety, and income stream.
    • 18.2.10 Comparing Fund Types
      Comprehensive analysis and detailed comparison of mutual fund types based on their risk and return profiles, catering to diverse investment objectives of the Canadian investing public.
    • 18.2.2 Fixed-income Funds
      Detailed overview of fixed-income funds focusing on their types, investment strategies, risk factors and key characteristics.
    • 18.2.3 Balanced Funds
      Explore the intricacies of balanced funds, detailing their investment strategies, key features, types, and much more in this comprehensive guide for those preparing for the Canadian Securities Course certification exam.
    • 18.2.4 Equity Funds
      Detailed exploration of different types of equity funds, their objectives, risk profiles, and tax implications. In-depth analysis of sub-categories such as small-cap and mid-cap funds and dividend funds.
    • 18.2.5 Commodity Funds
      Learn about Commodity Funds that invest in physical commodities and derivatives. Understand their exposure limits and leverage criteria.
    • 18.2.6 Specialty Funds
      Comprehensive guide to specialty funds in the Canadian Securities Course certification exam, covering types, characteristics, risks, and benefits of specialty funds.
    • 18.2.7 Target-date Funds
      Comprehensive guide on target-date funds including definitions, functionality, examples, FAQs and key formats for Canadian Securities Course exam preparation.
    • 18.2.8 Alternative Funds
      Gain a deeper understanding of alternative funds, including definitions, strategies, subcategories, and key takeaways.
    • 18.2.9 Index Funds
      Comprehensive guide on index funds in the context of the Canadian Securities Course, explaining their objectives, structure, benefits, and associated risks.
  • 18.3 Fund Management Styles
    A comprehensive guide to understanding different mutual fund management styles with examples and FAQs.
    • 18.3.1 Indexing And Closet Indexing
      Discover the differences and implications of Indexing and Closet Indexing in mutual fund management. Learn about their advantages, disadvantages, and suitability for different investment strategies.
  • 18.4 Redemption Of Mutual Fund Units Or Shares
    Learn about the process, tax ramifications, and types of withdrawal plans related to the redemption of mutual fund units or shares in this section of the Canadian Securities Course certification guide.
    • 18.4.1 Tax Consequences Of Redemption
      Understand the tax implications of redeeming mutual fund shares, including distributions, capital gains, and the adjusted cost base in this section.
    • 18.4.2 Reinvesting Distributions
      Enhance your understanding of reinvesting distributions, and grasp how it influences net asset value per share (NAVPS), mutual funds, and long-term investment growth.
    • 18.4.3 Withdrawal Plans
      Guide on various withdrawal plans for investors in mutual funds, including ratio withdrawal plans, fixed-dollar withdrawal plans, fixed-period withdrawal plans, and life expectancy-adjusted withdrawal plans.
    • 18.4.4 Suspension Of Redemptions
      Explore the circumstances under which Canadian mutual funds might suspend redemptions, including regulatory requirements and exceptional conditions.
  • 18.5 Measuring Mutual Fund Performance
    A comprehensive guide for understanding how to measure and compare mutual fund performance, focusing on evaluation periods, management cost, and performance benchmarking.
    • 18.5.1 Reading Mutual Fund Quotes
      A comprehensive guide on understanding how to read and interpret mutual fund quotes with detailed explanations, formulas, and examples.
    • 18.5.2 Measuring Mutual Fund Performance
      Learn how to measure mutual fund performance using different techniques like comparing NAVPS, time-weighted rate of return (TWRR), and standard performance data. Understand the importance of benchmark and peer group comparisons in evaluating mutual fund performance.
    • 18.5.3 Issues That Complicate Mutual Fund Performance
      Deep dive into the complexities of mutual fund performance. Learn about various challenges and factors affecting mutual fund assessment, key terms, performance metrics, and common pitfalls.
  • 18.6 Summary
    This section provides a summary of the key concepts covered in Chapter 18 concerning mutual funds, including categories, management styles, tax implications, withdrawal plans, performance measurement, and evaluation standards.
Sunday, July 21, 2024