13. Fundamental And Technical Analysis

Learn the essential methods of fundamental and technical analysis in investment, how they affect security valuation, and their applications.



13 Fundamental and Technical Analysis

14 Company Analysis

Fundamental and Technical Analysis

In this chapter, you will learn how analysts use statistical, market, and industry information to value securities and make recommendations on their purchase or sale. You will be introduced to two primary methods of analysis: fundamental analysis and technical analysis.



  1. Compare and contrast fundamental and technical analysis.
  2. Describe how the three macroeconomic factors affect investor expectations and the price of securities.
  3. Explain how industries are classified and how industry classifications impact a company’s stock valuation.
  4. Describe the tools used in technical analysis.

Key Concepts and Terms

Key terms are defined in the Glossary and appear in bold text throughout the chapter. Here are some essential terms you should be familiar with:

  • Blue-Chip: High-quality, widely accepted stocks of well-established, financially stable, and highly reputable companies.
  • Chart Analysis: The process of examining security price and volume data to identify patterns that can predict future price movements.
  • Continuation Pattern: A technical chart pattern signifying that the current price trend will continue after a brief consolidation period.
  • Cycle Analysis: A technique used in technical analysis to identify recurring cycles in the prices and economic indicators to forecast future trends.
  • Efficient Market Hypothesis (EMH): The theory that all available information is fully and immediately reflected in securities prices making it impossible to consistently achieve higher-than-average returns.
  • Sentiment Indicators: Tools that gauge investor sentiment to predict market movements, such as surveys or flow of funds data.
  • Technical Analysis: The method of evaluating securities by analyzing statistics generated by market activity, such as past prices and volume, without considering a security’s intrinsic value.
  • Fundamental Analysis: The method of evaluating the intrinsic value of a security by examining related economic, financial, and other qualitative and quantitative factors.

Methods of Equity Analysis

Fundamental Analysis

Fundamental analysis involves evaluating the intrinsic value of a security. Analysts will consider financial statements, external factors including macroeconomic indicators, industry conditions, and company-specific news to estimate the true worth of a security.

  1. Financial Statement Analysis: Studying balance sheets, income statements, and cash flow reports.
  2. Industry Analysis: Examining industry conditions, competitors, market position and cyclical factors.
  3. Economic Analysis: Reviewing broader economic indicators such as GDP, inflation rates, and employment levels.
  4. Qualitative Analysis: Assessing management quality, companies’ business models and strategy, brand value and market share.

Technical Analysis

Technical analysis focuses primarily on price and volume activity to predict future price variations rather than the intrinsic value.

  1. Chart Analysis: Detecting patterns and interpreting charts of past prices and volumes.
        graph LR
    	A[Price Movement] --> B[Support and Resistance]
    	C[Trendlines] --> A
    	B --> D[Head and Shoulders]
    	B --> E[Continuation Pattern]
    	F[Moving Averages] --> C
  2. Sentiment Indicators: Gauging market sentiment through various methods like trader surveys or option trading volume.

Key Takeaways

  • Fundamental Analysis and Technical Analysis are key methods for security analysis, each with unique applications and tools.
  • Macroeconomic factors can substantially affect investor sentiment and security prices.
  • Industry classifications and fundamental factors are crucial in evaluating a company’s stock.
  • Technical tools and patterns, such as moving averages and trendlines, help predict market behavior.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

What are the primary differences between fundamental and technical analysis? Fundamental analysis evaluates the intrinsic value of securities using financial and economic data, while technical analysis uses past market data like price and volume to predict future price movements.

How do macroeconomic factors affect stock valuation? Macroeconomic factors like GDP growth, interest and inflation rates significantly influence investor sentiment, which in turn impacts the price of securities.

What are support and resistance levels in technical analysis? Support levels are price points below which a stock price typically does not fall, while resistance levels are points above which it rarely rises.

What role does qualitative analysis play in fundamental analysis? Qualitative analysis involves assessing non-quantifiable factors such as management quality, brand value, and company strategy to gauge a company’s long-term potential.

By understanding and applying these methods and principles, analysts can make more informed decisions and provide nuanced investment recommendations. This section will equip you with the foundational knowledge required for sophisticated investment analysis.

CSC® Exams Practice Questions

📚✨ CSC Exam Questions ✨📚

Welcome to the Knowledge Checkpoint! You'll find 10 carefully curated CSC exam practice questions designed to reinforce the key concepts covered. These questions will help you gauge your grasp of the material, identify areas that need further review, and ensure you're on the right track towards mastering the content for the Canadian Securities certification exams. Take your time, think critically, and use these quizzes as a tool to enhance your learning journey. 📘✨

Good luck!

markdown ## What is the primary difference between fundamental and technical analysis? - [ ] Fundamental analysis focuses on historical price and volume data. - [ ] Technical analysis evaluates a company's financial health. - [x] Fundamental analysis uses financial data to determine the intrinsic value of a stock. - [ ] Technical analysis considers factors like revenue, expenses, and profits. > **Explanation:** Fundamental analysis uses financial data and economic indicators to assess the intrinsic value of a stock, whereas technical analysis focuses on historical price and volume data to forecast future price movements. ## How do macroeconomic factors influence investor expectations and security prices? - [ ] They typically have negligible impact on security prices. - [ ] Only affect the technological sector's stock prices. - [x] They influence the overall market environment, affecting investor expectations and the price of all securities. - [ ] Their effects are restricted to blue-chip stocks only. > **Explanation:** Macroeconomic factors like interest rates, inflation, and GDP growth rates influence the economic environment and therefore have a widespread impact on investor expectations and security prices in all sectors. ## Which method classifies industries and assesses their impact on stock valuation? - [ ] Quantitative Analysis - [ ] Technical Analysis - [x] Fundamental Industry Analysis - [ ] Continuation Pattern Analysis > **Explanation:** Fundamental industry analysis classifies industries and evaluates how industry characteristics impact the valuation of a company's stock. ## What is the purpose of using a moving average in technical analysis? - [ ] To predict cycle patterns. - [x] To smooth out short-term price fluctuations and identify trends. - [ ] To measure the company's performance relative to its competitors. - [ ] To calculate financial ratios. > **Explanation:** Moving averages are used in technical analysis to smooth out short-term price fluctuations and thus identify longer-term trends in price movement. ## Which of the following is a characteristic of growth industries? - [ ] They have slow, steady growth rates. - [x] They experience rapid expansions and offer high returns. - [ ] They are in decline. - [ ] They are resistant to economic cycles. > **Explanation:** Growth industries are characterized by their rapid expansion, high returns, and potential to grow significantly faster than the overall economy. ## What type of analysis involves studying stock price patterns like head-and-shoulders or support levels? - [ ] Fundamental Macroeconomic Analysis - [ ] Quantitative Analysis - [x] Technical Analysis - [ ] Sentiment Indicators Analysis > **Explanation:** Technical analysis involves the study of stock price patterns and other indicators such as head-and-shoulders formations and support levels to forecast future price movements. ## What is a blue-chip stock? - [x] A stock from a well-established, financially sound, and reliable company. - [ ] A stock that is in the speculative industry. - [ ] A newly issued stock with high growth potential. - [ ] A stock that consistently underperforms the market. > **Explanation:** A blue-chip stock typically belongs to well-established, financially sound, and reliable companies known for their stability and strong performance. ## Which hypothesis suggests that all available information is fully reflected in a stock's price? - [ ] Rational Expectations Hypothesis - [ ] Random Walk Theory - [ ] Quantitative Analysis - [x] Efficient Market Hypothesis > **Explanation:** The Efficient Market Hypothesis posits that stock prices fully reflect all available information, making it impossible to consistently achieve higher returns without taking on additional risk. ## What is the main focus of sentiment indicators in technical analysis? - [ ] Company financials and earnings. - [ ] Macroeconomic data. - [ ] The business cycle stage of the economy. - [x] Investor emotions and potential market movements. > **Explanation:** Sentiment indicators focus on assessing investor emotions, which can give insights into potential market movements based on collective sentiment. ## Which tool helps contrarian investors identify buying opportunities? - [ ] Chart Analysis - [ ] Random Walk Theory - [ ] Efficient Market Hypothesis - [x] Sentiment Indicators > **Explanation:** Sentiment indicators help contrarian investors identify buying opportunities by revealing when the majority of investors are extremely bullish or bearish, suggesting potential market reversals.

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In this section

  • 13.1 Introduction
    This introduction provides a comprehensive overview of the essential tools and techniques for evaluating investment opportunities, incorporating both fundamental and technical analysis within the financial markets.
  • 13.2 Methods Of Equity Analysis
    A comprehensive guide covering the methods of equity analysis, focusing on fundamental and technical analysis, and providing detailed insights, formulas, charts, and key takeaways to help you prepare for the Canadian Securities Course certification exam.
    • 13.2.1 Overview Of Fundamental Analysis
      Learn about fundamental analysis in the context of the Canadian Securities Course (CSC), including its importance in evaluating capital market conditions, economic conditions, industry conditions, and individual companies to measure intrinsic value.
    • 13.2.2 Overview Of Technical Analysis
      Discover the fundamentals and key concepts of technical analysis in securities trading. Learn how past price movements and market sentiment help predict future price directions.
    • 13.2.3 Market Theories
      Explore the three major stock market theories - efficient market hypothesis, random walk theory, and rational expectations hypothesis, along with their variations and implications for investment strategies.
  • 13.3 Fundamental Macroeconomic Analysis
    Understand how three macroeconomic factors—fiscal policy, monetary policy, and inflation—influence investor expectations and the price of securities. Learn the impact of unpredictable events such as international crises, regulatory changes, and technological innovations.
    • 13.3.1 Fiscal Policy Impact
      A comprehensive analysis of how fiscal policy impacts economic performance, government spending, taxation, and investment.
    • 13.3.2 Monetary Policy Impact
      Learn about the impact of monetary policy on the economy, securities market, and the effects of inflation on corporate profits and price-earnings multiples.
  • 13.4 Fundamental Industry Analysis
    Detailed guide on fundamental industry analysis explaining industry classification, impact on stock valuation, and factors affecting company profitability.
  • 13.5 Technical Analysis
    Explore the essentials of technical analysis within the Canadian Securities Course (CSC). Understand the tools and assumptions that technical analysts utilize to determine future price trends based on historical market data.
  • 13.6 Summary
    This summary covers the key aspects of fundamental and technical analysis, highlighting their differences, underlying hypotheses, macroeconomic factors, industry classifications, and the role of competitive forces.
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