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11.3.3 Statement Of Changes In Equity

An in-depth guide to understanding the statement of changes in equity, retained earnings, total comprehensive income, and non-controlling interest in the context of financial statements.

Introduction

The statement of changes in equity is used to record changes to each component of equity, including share capital and retained earnings. It also records any change in non-controlling interest, presenting a comprehensive overview of equity’s evolution over a specific period. This forms a crucial part of the financial statements, linking the statement of comprehensive income and the statement of financial position.

Retained Earnings

Retained Earnings are the profits earned over the years that have not been paid out to shareholders as dividends. These retained profits accrue to the shareholders, but the directors have decided to reinvest them in the business.

Retained earnings provide a record of the total comprehensive income kept in the business year after year. Here is an example formula used to determine retained earnings:

$$Retained~Earnings_t = Retained~Earnings_{t-1} + Net~Income_t - Dividends_t$$

Where:

  • \(Retained~Earnings_t\) = Retained earnings at time \(t\)
  • \(Retained~Earnings_{t-1}\) = Retained earnings at the end of the last period
  • \(Net~Income_t\) = Net income during the current period
  • \(Dividends_t\) = Dividends declared during the current period

Dividends declared during the year are subtracted from retained earnings in the statement of changes in equity.

Importance of the Statement of Changes in Equity

The statement of changes in equity is critical because it provides a link between the statement of comprehensive income and the statement of financial position. This ensures that stakeholders can trace the journey of the company’s profits and owner’s equity over time with accuracy.

Total Comprehensive Income

The Total Comprehensive Income in the statement of changes in equity shows the company’s total comprehensive income in the form of retained earnings. It also shows the amount of total comprehensive income that is attributable to non-controlling interests.

The total comprehensive income can be divided among:

  • Owners of the company
  • Non-controlling interests

This separation helps in understanding the profit distribution between various stakeholders.

Example

Consider a company that owns 80% of the shares of a subsidiary, and the subsidiary had a total comprehensive income of $1,000,000 last year. The consolidated statement of comprehensive income will include $1,000,000 as part of the income of the parent company.

Breakdown:

  • Total comprehensive income of subsidiary: $1,000,000
  • Share attributable to parent company (80%): $800,000
  • Share attributable to non-controlling interests (20%): $200,000

Therefore, in the statement of changes in equity, $200,000 will be recorded as income attributable to non-controlling interests.

    pie title Total Comprehensive Income Distribution
	  "Parent Company - 80%" : 800000
	  "Non-controlling Interests - 20%" : 200000

Key Takeaways

  • The Statement of Changes in Equity is a financial statement that explains the changes in a company’s equity over a period.
  • Retained Earnings represent accumulated profits that have not been distributed to shareholders. These are reinvested into the business.
  • Total Comprehensive Income includes all changes in equity during a period except those resulting from investments by owners and distributions to owners.
  • Changes due to Non-controlling Interests must be separately disclosed.
  • This statement provides insight into the decision-making of the company’s management regarding profit allocation and reinvestment.

Glossary

  • Equity: The value of ownership interest in the company, calculated as assets minus liabilities.
  • Retained Earnings: Profits that have been reinvested in the company rather than paid out as dividends.
  • Total Comprehensive Income: A measure of all income, including profits, for a given period.
  • Non-controlling Interest: Ownership in a subsidiary corporation by an investor who does not exert control.

FAQs

What is the purpose of the statement of changes in equity?

The statement provides detailed information about changes in various equity components, including share capital, retained earnings, and non-controlling interest, offering a comprehensive view of equity’s movement.

How are retained earnings calculated?

Retained earnings are calculated by adding net income to the previous period’s retained earnings, then subtracting any dividends declared.

What is the importance of distinguishing non-controlling interests?

Distinguishing non-controlling interests provides a clear picture of profit allocation between the parent company and other minority shareholders, ensuring transparency and accuracy in financial reporting.


CSC® Exams Practice Questions

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## What does the statement of changes in equity record? - [x] Changes to each component of equity, including share capital and retained earnings - [ ] Only changes in share capital - [ ] Only changes in retained earnings - [ ] Only changes in non-controlling interest > **Explanation:** The statement of changes in equity records changes to each component of equity, such as share capital, retained earnings, and non-controlling interest. ## What are retained earnings? - [ ] Profits paid out to shareholders as dividends - [x] Profits earned over the years that have not been paid out to shareholders as dividends - [ ] Initial capital invested by shareholders - [ ] A liability for the company > **Explanation:** Retained earnings are profits earned over the years that have not been paid out to shareholders as dividends. These are reinvested in the business. ## How are dividends handled in the statement of changes in equity? - [ ] They are added to retained earnings - [ ] They do not appear in the statement - [x] They are subtracted from retained earnings - [ ] They are added to share capital > **Explanation:** Dividends declared during the year are subtracted from retained earnings in the statement of changes in equity. ## What does the statement of changes in equity provide a link between? - [ ] The income statement and the balance sheet - [x] The statement of comprehensive income and the statement of financial position - [ ] The cash flow statement and the income statement - [ ] The balance sheet and the cash flow statement > **Explanation:** The statement of changes in equity provides a link between the statement of comprehensive income and the statement of financial position. ## In the consolidated statement of changes in equity, what is disclosed besides the profit or loss to the parent company? - [ ] Only the company's total assets - [x] The profit or loss to the non-controlling interests - [ ] Only the company's liabilities - [ ] Only the company's revenues > **Explanation:** The consolidated statement of changes in equity also discloses the profit or loss to the non-controlling interests, as well as to the parent company. ## In the context provided, what represents the total comprehensive income attributable to the owners of the company? - [x] The total comprehensive income of the company minus the total comprehensive income attributable to non-controlling interests - [ ] The total comprehensive income of the company - [ ] The total comprehensive income attributable to non-controlling interests - [ ] Net profits after dividend payments > **Explanation:** The total comprehensive income attributable to the owners of the company represents the total comprehensive income of the company minus the total comprehensive income attributable to non-controlling interests. ## How is the new final retained earnings figure determined? - [ ] By adding share capital for the year - [ ] By the initial equity investment only - [ ] By subtracting total expenses from total revenues - [x] By adding the portion of total comprehensive income for the current year to the previous year's retained earnings and subtracting dividends declared during the year > **Explanation:** The new final retained earnings figure is determined by adding the portion of total comprehensive income for the current year to the previous year's retained earnings and subtracting dividends declared during the year. ## What does the total comprehensive income attributable to non-controlling interests represent? - [x] The portion of total comprehensive income that belongs to stakeholders who do not control the company - [ ] The entire profit of the company - [ ] The portion of income that has been distributed as dividends - [ ] The reinvested capital > **Explanation:** The total comprehensive income attributable to non-controlling interests represents the portion of total comprehensive income that belongs to stakeholders who do not control the company. ## If a parent company owns 80% of a subsidiary that earned $1,000,000, what amount is attributable to non-controlling interests? - [ ] $800,000 - [x] $200,000 - [ ] $0 - [ ] $1,000,000 > **Explanation:** If the parent company owns 80% of the subsidiary, then 20% of the total comprehensive income ($1,000,000) is attributable to non-controlling interests, which equals $200,000. ## Why is the statement of changes in equity important? - [ ] It records only revenues - [ ] It shows only cash flows - [x] It provides information linking the statement of comprehensive income and the statement of financial position - [ ] It records only equity transactions > **Explanation:** The statement of changes in equity is important because it provides a link between the statement of comprehensive income and the statement of financial position, showing changes in equity including share capital and retained earnings.

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