Browse Investments Products

8.2.4 Voting Privileges

This guide explores the rights of shareholders in the context of voting privileges, focusing on various types of shares, including restricted shares, and their impact on shareholders' participation in corporate governance.

Voting Privileges

Voting rights are an important feature of common shares. Typically, each common shareholder has one vote for each share owned. Through the right to vote at the annual meeting and special or general meetings, shareholders exercise their rights as owners to influence the destiny of the corporation.

However, many companies issue multiple classes of shares, often designated as Class A, B, or C. Not all classes have identical voting rights, and they may also differ in terms of dividend entitlements and other features. Understanding the characteristics of each class is crucial for informed decision-making.

Restricted Shares

Restricted shares (or special shares) allow shareholders to participate fully in the earnings and assets of a company during liquidation but do not carry full voting rights. These shares fall into three primary categories:

  1. Non-voting shares: These do not carry the right to vote, except under specific limited circumstances.
  2. Subordinate voting shares: These carry voting rights if another class of shares, which has a greater voting right per share, is outstanding.
  3. Restricted voting shares: These allow voting but impose a limit or restriction on the number or percentage of shares that a person, company, or group can vote.

Increased Issuance of Restricted Shares

The issuance of restricted shares has increased substantially. Some investors are concerned and resist efforts by companies to reorganize and create restricted shares due to the diminished voting power they confer.

Did You Know?

Canadian securities regulators, such as the Ontario Securities Commission (OSC), have introduced rules to manage restricted shares. OSC Rule 56-501 outlines specific details. As an investment advisor, it’s vital to identify restricted shares, understand their implications, and communicate their differences in voting rights to clients for proper advice.

Stock Exchange Regulations of Restricted Shares

Stock exchanges and securities commissions have published several regulations regarding restricted shares:

  • Restricted shares must be identified using the appropriate term.
  • Disclosure documents, including information circulars, annual reports, and financial statements sent to voting shareholders, must also be sent to holders of restricted shares. These documents must describe voting restrictions.
  • Restricted shares must be identified in the financial press with a special code.
  • Dealer and advisor literature must accurately describe restricted shares.
  • Trade confirmations must identify restricted shares.
  • Holders of restricted shares must be given notice of shareholders’ meetings. They must also be invited to attend and given the right to speak at these meetings.
  • Minority approval is required for any corporate action resulting in the creation of new restricted shares.

As an investment advisor, it’s crucial to be aware of the varied levels of protection offered to restricted shareholders.

Key Takeaways

  • Voting Rights: Common shareholders typically have voting rights, but these can vary by share class. Understanding the differences is crucial for corporate governance.
  • Restricted Shares: Different categories include non-voting, subordinate voting, and restricted voting shares. Each has specific implications for shareholder voting power.
  • Regulatory Oversight: OSC Rule 56-501 and other stock exchange regulations ensure restricted shares are appropriately disclosed and shareholders are protected.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

What are voting privileges?

Voting privileges refer to the rights common shareholders possess to vote on corporate matters such as electing the board of directors and approving major corporate changes.

What are restricted shares?

Restricted shares are special types of shares that allow participation in a company’s earnings and assets but come with limited or no voting rights.

How are restricted shares regulated in Canada?

Canadian securities regulators like the OSC have specific rules for restricted shares, such as OSC Rule 56-501, which provide detailed regulations on their issuance and required disclosures.


  • Common Shares: Shares that represent ownership in a company and typically come with voting rights.
  • Restricted Shares: Shares that allow participation in earnings and assets but come with limited or no voting rights.
  • OSC Rule 56-501: An Ontario Securities Commission rule that outlines the regulations for restricted shares.


Understanding voting privileges and the different types of shares is vital for any investment advisor. This knowledge enables well-informed investment recommendations and helps manage client expectations effectively. By staying informed about regulatory changes and corporate actions related to shares, advisors can ensure they provide accurate and valuable advice to their clients.

CSC® Exams Practice Questions

📚✨ CSC Exam Questions ✨📚

Welcome to the Knowledge Checkpoint! You'll find 10 carefully curated CSC exam practice questions designed to reinforce the key concepts covered. These questions will help you gauge your grasp of the material, identify areas that need further review, and ensure you're on the right track towards mastering the content for the Canadian Securities certification exams. Take your time, think critically, and use these quizzes as a tool to enhance your learning journey. 📘✨

Good luck!

## What is a typical voting right associated with common shares? - [ ] One vote for every three shares owned - [ ] One vote for each class of shares owned - [x] One vote for each share owned - [ ] No voting rights > **Explanation:** Common shareholders usually have one vote for each share they own, allowing them to participate in the control and decision-making processes of the company. ## Which category of restricted shares carries no right to vote except in limited circumstances? - [x] Non-voting shares - [ ] Subordinate voting shares - [ ] Restricted voting shares - [ ] Class A shares > **Explanation:** Non-voting shares do not have voting rights in general but may have the right to vote in certain limited circumstances. ## What defines subordinate voting shares? - [ ] Shares with no voting rights other than specific limited circumstances - [ ] Shares with the same voting rights as common shares - [ ] Shares with a greater voting right on a per share basis - [x] Shares that carry a right to vote if another class of shares has greater voting power > **Explanation:** Subordinate voting shares carry a right to vote only if there is another class of shares with superior voting rights. ## What restriction is linked to restricted voting shares? - [ ] They carry no voting rights - [ ] They carry greater per share voting rights - [x] They have limits on the number or percentage of shares that may be voted - [ ] They are only available for internal company use > **Explanation:** Restricted voting shares have limitations on the number or percentage of shares that can be voted by any single entity. ## Why must disclosure documents be sent to holders of restricted shares? - [ ] To solicit additional investment - [ ] To offer them voting rights - [ ] To enable them to sell shares easily - [x] To inform them about the restrictions on their voting rights > **Explanation:** Disclosure documents must be sent to holders of restricted shares to ensure they are well-informed about the limitations and conditions associated with their shares. ## What requirement must be met for any corporate action leading to the creation of new restricted shares? - [ ] Majority approval - [x] Minority approval - [ ] CEO's approval - [ ] Regulatory approval > **Explanation:** Minority approval is required for any corporate actions that would result in the creation of new restricted shares to protect the interests of minority shareholders. ## How must restricted shares be denoted in financial press? - [ ] With a price tag - [x] With a specific code - [ ] With an asterisk - [ ] They do not need to be identified specially > **Explanation:** Restricted shares must be identified in financial publications with a specific code to clearly denote their restricted nature. ## What must trade confirmations identify? - [ ] Only the price and date of the trade - [ ] The broker handling the trade - [ ] The regulatory body overseeing the trade - [x] Whether the shares traded are restricted shares > **Explanation:** Trade confirmations must explicitly identify if the traded shares are restricted to inform investors about the limitations on voting rights. ## Why should investment advisors communicate differences in voting rights of restricted shares to their clients? - [ ] To avoid legal issues - [x] To provide proper advice and ensure investors are fully informed - [ ] To increase share sales - [ ] To comply with stock exchange regulations > **Explanation:** Proper advisement on voting rights and restrictions ensures investors make well-informed decisions and are aware of any limitations associated with their shares. ## What protection is offered to holders of restricted shares in terms of shareholder meetings? - [ ] They are prohibited from attending - [ ] They can only vote if they have majority shares - [x] They must be given notice, invited to attend, and allowed to speak - [ ] They can only observe and not speak > **Explanation:** Holders of restricted shares must receive notice of shareholders’ meetings; they should also be invited to attend and permitted to speak, ensuring their concerns are heard.

Exciting News!

🚀 Launch Date: April 14th

🎉 Now On App Store!

📱 Available on iPhone and iPad

📚 Master the CSC® Exam with our top ranked iOS app! Packed with thousands of sample questions, it's your perfect study companion for acing the Canadian Securities Course Certification exams!

🎯 Achieve Your Professional Goals with ease. Try it now and take the first step towards success!

🌟 CSC Exam Questions 🌟

Download Today!

Sunday, July 21, 2024