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1.5.4 Cryptocurrency

Dive deep into the world of cryptocurrency, including its definition, types of investment vehicles, the technology behind it, and its potential as an asset class.

Introduction to Cryptocurrency

Cryptocurrency and cryptoassets have been growing in popularity around the world. Cryptoassets are purely digital and utilize cryptography to prevent counterfeiting and fraudulent transactions, relying on peer-to-peer networking and a public ledger to control the creation and transfer of assets without intermediaries. A notable example of a cryptoasset is Bitcoin, a cryptocurrency that made its debut in 2009.

Bitcoin: The Forefront of Cryptocurrency

Bitcoin, the largest and most actively traded cryptocurrency, is making its way into traditional investing. Despite its growing footprint, Bitcoin still faces substantial investor concerns and regulatory challenges far beyond traditional investments such as stocks and bonds.

Bitcoin Investment Vehicles

Here are some of the Bitcoin investment options:

  • Trusts and Funds:
    • Mutual Funds
    • Hedge Funds
    • The recently listed closed-end Bitcoin Fund in Canada
  • Futures and Options
  • ETFs: Limited to Europe, as North American regulators are yet to approve Bitcoin ETFs. Related blockchain ETFs are trading in the United States.
  • Capital Investments:
    • Venture Capital
    • Private Equity

Direct Access to Bitcoin

Other methods to directly access Bitcoin include:

  • Peer-to-peer exchanges
  • Licensed and unlicensed exchanges
  • Bitcoin ATMs

Key Technology: Blockchain

Bitcoin operates through a public and shared ledger powered by open-source code known as blockchain. Blockchain creates a shared public ledger available to record and validate all past transactions, which are unalterable. Each transaction forms a “block” that is part of the “chain,” creating a permanent record.

    flowchart TB
	    A(Block) --> B(Block)
	    B(Block) --> C(Block)
	    C(Block) --> D(Block)
	    style A fill:#f9f,stroke:#333,stroke-width:2px;
	    style B fill:#9f9,stroke:#333,stroke-width:2px;
	    style C fill:#9ff,stroke:#333,stroke-width:2px;
	    style D fill:#ff6,stroke:#333,stroke-width:2px;

Proliferation of Cryptocurrencies

The underpinning blockchain technology has enabled the creation of more than 2,200 cryptocurrencies following Bitcoin.

The Value and Impact of Bitcoin

Bitcoin’s value is derived from its role as both a medium of exchange (intrinsic value) and a store of value (monetary value). More recently, Bitcoin has started to be considered as a distinct asset class that offers diversification benefits to a conventional portfolio consisting of stocks and bonds.

Bitcoin’s unique characteristics have catalyzed the disruption of:

  • Money
  • Gold
  • Store of value
  • Payments and remittances

As financial services pivot to digital platforms, interest in Bitcoin surges, with some investors euphemistically referring to it as “digital gold.”

Key Takeaways

  • Cryptoassets are digital assets using cryptography for secure transaction verification.
  • Bitcoin, launched in 2009, remains the benchmark cryptocurrency.
  • Investment vehicles for Bitcoin include mutual funds, hedge funds, futures, and options.
  • Blockchain, Bitcoin’s underlying technology, ensures secure and transparent transaction records.
  • Bitcoin provides potential diversification benefits, disrupting traditional financial and asset mechanisms.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

Q1: What is cryptocurrency?

A: Cryptocurrency is a digital or virtual asset designed to work as a medium of exchange using cryptography to secure the transactions and control the creation of new units.

Q2: How does Bitcoin function?

A: Bitcoin functions through blockchain technology, a decentralized ledger that records all transactions across the network.

Q3: What investment vehicles are available for Bitcoin?

A: Investment vehicles include mutual funds, hedge funds, futures, options, venture capital, and private equity.

Q4: Are there regulatory barriers for Bitcoin investment in North America?

A: Yes, regulatory barriers exist, and North American regulators have yet to approve Bitcoin ETFs.


  • Blockchain: A system in which a record of transactions made in Bitcoin or another cryptocurrency is maintained across several computers that are linked in a peer-to-peer network.
  • Cryptography: The art of writing or solving codes to ensure secure communication.
  • Cryptocurrency: A digital currency in which transactions are verified and records maintained by a decentralized system using cryptography.
  • Digital Gold: A term used to describe Bitcoin’s value as a ‘store of value,’ similar to gold.


The expanding landscape of cryptocurrency offers numerous opportunities and challenges for investors. With its underlying technology and unique attributes, Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies are poised to play a significant role in the future of finance and investment.

📚✨ Quiz Time! ✨📚

🧐 Assess and Solidify Your Understanding

Welcome to the Knowledge Checkpoint! You’ll find 10 carefully curated quizzes designed to reinforce the key concepts covered. These questions will help you gauge your grasp of the material, identify areas that need further review, and ensure you’re on the right track towards mastering the content for the Canadian Securities certification exams. Take your time, think critically, and use these quizzes as a tool to enhance your learning journey. 📘✨

Good luck! 🍀💪

## Which of the following best describes a cryptoasset? - [ ] A physical form of money that uses cryptography - [ ] A form of digital cash controlled by a central authority - [x] An asset that exists only in digital form and uses cryptography to prevent counterfeiting and fraudulent transactions - [ ] A digital representation of a physical asset like gold or real estate > **Explanation:** Cryptoassets are digital in nature and utilize cryptographic techniques to ensure security and authenticity. They rely on decentralized networks and public ledgers, eliminating the need for centralized intermediaries. ## What is the primary function of blockchain in the context of cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin? - [ ] Creating new physical currency - [x] Maintaining a shared public ledger to record and validate transactions - [ ] Governing financial institutions - [ ] Serving as a physical storage for digital records > **Explanation:** Blockchain technology is a decentralized system that creates a permanent, immutable record of transactions known as blocks. These blocks are linked or "chained" together, forming a comprehensive ledger. ## Why is Bitcoin referred to as "digital gold"? - [ ] Because it is centrally managed by a bank - [ ] Due to its physical resemblance to gold - [x] Due to its perceived value as a store of value and medium of exchange, similar to gold - [ ] Because it can be converted into gold directly > **Explanation:** Bitcoin is often dubbed "digital gold" because of its perceived role as a store of value and medium of exchange, much like how gold has been historically valued. ## As of the time of writing, why do Bitcoin ETFs face challenges in approval in North America? - [ ] Lack of investor interest - [ ] High transaction fees - [ ] Limited technological infrastructure - [x] Regulatory concerns and hurdles > **Explanation:** Bitcoin ETFs face significant regulatory challenges in North America, relating to concerns around market manipulation, volatility, and investor protection. ## Which Bitcoin investment vehicle is mentioned as being recently listed in Canada? - [ ] Bitcoin ETF - [ ] Blockchain mutual fund - [x] Closed-end Bitcoin Fund - [ ] Private equity > **Explanation:** The text mentions the recently listed closed-end Bitcoin Fund in Canada as an investment vehicle for Bitcoin. ## What technology powers Bitcoin and ensures the integrity of its transactions? - [ ] Cloud computing - [ ] USB storage devices - [x] Open-source blockchain code - [ ] Proprietary software by a major tech company > **Explanation:** Bitcoin operates on an open-source blockchain, which provides a transparent and secure way to record and validate transactions. ## What are the primary values from which Bitcoin derives its worth? - [ ] Regulatory backing and tax incentives - [x] Medium of exchange (intrinsic value) and store of value (monetary value) - [ ] Traditional investment portfolios - [ ] Government subsidies > **Explanation:** Bitcoin's value comes from its use as a medium of exchange and a store of value, similar to traditional currencies and assets. ## Approximately how many cryptocurrencies exist that followed in Bitcoin's wake? - [ ] Around 100 - [ ] Less than 1,000 - [ ] Over 5,000 - [x] More than 2,200 > **Explanation:** The text states that more than 2,200 cryptocurrencies have been developed following Bitcoin's lead. ## What aspect of financial services is contributing to the growing interest in Bitcoin? - [ ] Increase in physical bank branches - [ ] Decline in digital platforms - [x] Transition towards digital platforms - [ ] Mandatory government endorsement > **Explanation:** Bitcoin's growing interest is partially due to the broader transition within financial services towards digital platforms and solutions. ## What is one of the investment vehicles mentioned for gaining direct access to Bitcoin? - [ ] Real estate investment trusts - [x] Peer-to-peer exchanges - [ ] Government bonds - [ ] Traditional bank savings accounts > **Explanation:** One way to gain direct access to Bitcoin is through peer-to-peer exchanges, where transactions can be made directly between parties.

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Saturday, July 13, 2024