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1.3 Investment Dealer’s Role As Financial Intermediary

Understand the role of investment dealers as financial intermediaries, categorization of investment dealers, differences between principal and agency transactions, and their formal activities in financial markets such as primary market distributions and secondary market operations.

Distinguishing Among Categories of Investment Dealers

Investment dealers are broadly categorized into three types based on their organizational structure and operations:

  1. Independent Dealers: These are standalone entities not affiliated with any large financial institutions. They often specialize in a specific market niche or client segment.
  2. Institutional Dealers: These dealers are associated with large financial institutions such as banks. They mainly operate in complex financial markets and serve institutional clients like mutual funds, pension funds, and insurance companies.
  3. Retail Brokers: These entities focus on individual investors or small businesses. They offer services like investment advice, portfolio management, and execution of trades on behalf of their retail clients.

Difference Between Principal and Agency Transactions

Principal Transactions

In principal transactions, the investment dealer acts as the counterpart to the trade and uses its own capital to buy or sell securities. This involves experiencing direct financial risk similar to an investor. For instance, if an investment dealer buys shares directly from an issuing company, it owns the shares and can sell them to investors later.

Agency Transactions

In agency transactions, the investment dealer acts solely as an agent for its clients, buying and selling securities on their behalf without owning the securities directly. The dealer earns commission fees for facilitating these trades.

Key Differences

  • Financial Risk: Principal transactions involve direct financial risk for the dealer, while agency transactions transfer that risk to clients.
  • Ownership: In principal transactions, investment dealers temporarily own the securities, which is not the case in agency transactions.

Primary and Secondary Market Functions

Primary Market Functions

Investment dealers are fundamental in the primary market, specifically through activities such as underwriting and distribution of new securities. Underwriting involves the dealer purchasing securities from the issuer and reselling them to the public. The primary market distribution includes transactions like Initial Public Offerings (IPOs), where a company offers its stocks to the public for the first time.

Example: Initial Public Offering (IPO)

When a private company issues shares publicly for the first time, this is considered an IPO. For instance, if TechCorp decides to go public and sells its stocks on the primary market, it’s unveiled as an IPO facilitated by an investment dealer.

Secondary Market Functions

Investment dealers also play a central role in the secondary market, which facilitates trading of previously issued securities. Examples include stock exchanges like the Toronto Stock Exchange (TSE) where buying and selling of stocks occur post-initial issuance.

Key Functions

  1. Liquidity Provision: Dealers ensure there is enough market liquidity so that investors can buy and sell securities readily without significant price fluctuations.

  2. Price Discovery: They participate in the trading that helps establish the market value of securities through supply and demand mechanisms.

FAQ - Frequently Asked Questions

Q1: What is the primary role of an investment dealer in the financial market?

A1: Investment dealers act as intermediaries facilitating the movement of financial instruments between investors, aiding in capital transfers through underwriting and secondary market operations.

Q2: How do principal transactions differ from agency transactions?

A2: Principal transactions involve an investment dealer acting as the counterparty using its own capital, while in agency transactions, the dealer acts as an agent facilitating trades for clients without taking ownership.

Q3: What is an IPO, and which market does it involve?

A3: An IPO, or Initial Public Offering, is when a private company sells stocks to the public for the first time. This transaction occurs in the primary market.

Glossary of Key Terms

  • Investment Dealer: A financial intermediary facilitating buying and selling of securities.
  • Primary Market: Platform for new securities issuance, including IPOs.
  • Secondary Market: Market for trading previously issued securities.
  • IPO: Initial Public Offering, a company’s first sale of stock to the public.
  • Underwriting: An act of buying and distributing new securities by investment dealers.
  • Liquidity: The ability to buy or sell an asset quickly without affecting its price.
  • Price Discovery: The process of determining the market price of an asset.

Key Takeaways

  • Investment dealers serve essential roles in financial markets by conducting both principal and agency transactions.
  • Three categories of investment dealers—Independent, Institutional, and Retail—enable structured operations within varied client segments.
  • Active roles in primary markets and secondary markets facilitate liquidity, price discovery, and seamless capital transfer.

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## What is the role of an investment dealer as a financial intermediary? - [ ] To create new financial instruments - [ ] To eliminate the need for banks - [ ] To restrict the movement of financial instruments - [x] To facilitate the trading and movement of financial instruments between suppliers and users of capital > **Explanation:** Investment dealers act as intermediaries in the financial market, facilitating the transfer of capital and financial instruments between suppliers and users of capital. ## In what capacity do investment dealers act on behalf of their clients? - [ ] Principals only - [x] Agents and sometimes principals - [ ] Only as underwriters - [ ] Only in secondary markets > **Explanation:** Investment dealers may act as agents, facilitating transactions between clients, or as principals, dealing on their own behalf. ## What are the two main functions of the securities industry in which investment dealers play a significant role? - [ ] Creating financial plans and portfolios - [x] Underwriting and distributing new securities, and maintaining secondary markets - [ ] Providing loans and mortgages - [ ] Offering tax consulting services > **Explanation:** Investment dealers help to transfer capital by underwriting and distributing new securities in the primary market and by maintaining secondary markets for previously issued securities. ## What type of activity occurs in the primary market? - [ ] Trading of previously issued securities - [x] Underwriting and distribution of new securities - [ ] Foreign exchange trades - [ ] Real estate transactions > **Explanation:** The primary market involves the underwriting and distribution of new securities where investment dealers help transfer capital from suppliers to users. ## What is an initial public offering (IPO)? - [x] The first sale of stocks by a private company to the public in the primary market - [ ] Trading of a company's stocks in the secondary market - [ ] A new bond issuance by a government - [ ] An investment in mutual funds > **Explanation:** An IPO is the first time a private company offers its shares to the public in the primary market. ## Where can previously issued or outstanding securities be traded? - [ ] Only in private deals - [ ] In initial public offerings - [x] In secondary markets - [ ] Through trust companies > **Explanation:** Secondary markets facilitate the trading of previously issued or outstanding securities, such as the Toronto Stock Exchange. ## How do investment dealers help with the issuance of new securities? - [ ] By regulating the financial market - [x] By underwriting and distributing the securities - [ ] By providing loans to buyers - [ ] By offering tax benefits > **Explanation:** Investment dealers underwrite and distribute new securities in the primary market, helping to transfer capital from suppliers to users. ## What is the primary market distribution also known as? - [ ] Stock trading - [ ] Secondary market trading - [x] Primary offering - [ ] Margin trading > **Explanation:** Primary market distribution is also known as a primary offering, where new securities are sold for the first time. ## Which of the following is an organization that can act as a financial intermediary? - [x] Banks - [ ] Online retail stores - [ ] Car dealerships - [ ] Tax agencies > **Explanation:** Banks, alongside investment dealers, credit unions, trust companies, and insurance companies, act as financial intermediaries facilitating the movement of financial instruments. ## What is the key function of secondary markets? - [ ] To issue new financial instruments - [x] To allow the trading of previously issued securities - [ ] To grant loans - [ ] To regulate financial intermediaries > **Explanation:** The key function of secondary markets is to facilitate the trading of previously issued or outstanding securities.

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In this section

  • 1.3.1 Types Of Investment Dealers
    Learn about the different categories of investment dealers in the Canadian securities industry: Retail firms, Institutional firms, and Integrated firms.
  • 1.3.2 Organization Within Firms
    Understand the organization within investment dealer firms, including the roles and functions of the front, middle, and back offices, and the significance of senior management.
  • 1.3.3 Principal And Agency Functions Of Investment Dealer
    Gain an in-depth understanding of the principal and agency functions of investment dealers. Learn how these roles impact the trading of securities and the services provided by investment dealers.
  • 1.3.4 Clearing System
    Learn about the clearing system used in the Canadian securities market, including the role of CDS Clearing and Depository Services, the netting process, and key roles of an investment dealer.